Structure of kidneys
Kidney failure and its symptoms. We have two Kidneys it is also known as renal in medical term. For example, they are a pair of bean-shaped organs on either side of our spine. Each about the size of our fist. For the most part, they are a very important part of the human body. For the most part, critical illness or death may occur in the case of Kidney failure.
Such as, the structure of the kidneys are very strange and its functions are very complex. Generally, their two major functions are such as:
- Remove harmful wastes and toxins from the body.
- Regulates water, fluids, minerals as electrolytes, sodium, potassium from the body.
Kidney and urinary system
- The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs present in all vertebrates.
- In adults, kidneys length is about 10 cm long, 6 cm wide and 4 cm thick. Each kidney weighs about 150 – 170 grams.
- We have two kidneys in our body of both men as well as women. They are safely located inside the abdomen, in the back, on both sides of the spine in between ribs.
- Ureter which carries urine from the kidney to the bladder is known as the ureter, it is usually 25 cm in length and it is made up of a special type of flexible muscle.
- An adult person’s bladder may collect 400 – 500 ml of urine. A person has a strong urge to pass urine when the urine becomes full near the capacity of the bladder.
- Particularly, urination comes out of the body through the urethra. In women, the urethra is shorter than in men, while in men the passage is longer. If the kidney does not purify the blood than toxins circulate in the body and can become fatal.
Functions of the Urinary Tract
- The most important function of the kidney is to purify the blood by removing waste products. The food which we eat contains Protein.
- This protein is necessary for keeping our body healthy and for the development of the body.
- Kidneys excrete excess stored water through urine and keep the amount of water which is necessary for the body
- In case if the kidneys lose the ability to exclude excess water from the body. It causes the body to swell due to the accumulation of excess water.
- They work by keeping the amount of sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus and bicarbonate etc. in the normal range. The above substances are responsible for the amount of acid and alkali in the body.
- Increasing or decreasing the amount of sodium can have serious effects on the brain and heart and muscle activity by increasing or decreasing the amount of potassium.
Hormones produced by kidney
- High blood pressure, hormones such as angiotensin, aldosterone, prostaglandin etc produced in the kidney. With the help of these hormones, our body maintains a balance of water and it even maintains normal blood pressure in our body.
- In the case of kidney failure, water balance leads to high blood pressure.
- The Bone marrow produces red blood cells and when the kidney fails red blood cells are not produced which causes anemia.
- Also, Vitamin D is converted by kidneys, which is very important for calcium absorption, for the growth of bones and teeth they are very essential.
- Accordingly, the amount of urine is based on the amount of water consumed and according to the temperature of the atmosphere.
Symptoms of kidney disease
- Loss of appetite
- Puffiness around the eyes
- Dry, itchy skin
- Problems sleeping
Symptoms of kidney failure
Generally, kidney failure may be not provided with any symptoms (asymptomatic). Likewise, as kidney function decreases, the symptoms are linked to the failure to control water and electrolyte balances, clear waste products from the body, and promote red blood cell production.
If unrecognized or untreated, the following symptoms of kidney failure may develop into life-threatening circumstances.
- Shortness of breath
- Generalized swelling (edema)
- Generalized weakness due to anemia
- Loss of appetite
- Congestive heart failure
- Metabolic acidosis
- High blood potassium (hyperkalemia)
- Fatal heart rhythm disturbances (arrhythmias) including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation
- Rising urea levels in the blood (uremia) may lead to brain encephalopathy, pericarditis (inflammation of the heart lining), or low calcium blood levels (hypocalcemia)
Treatment for Kidney failure
If you are suffering from last-stage of kidney disease, then you have to choose for Dialysis or Kidney Transplant. Accordingly, there are several types of Dialysis and for more information, you have to consult your doctor for the best treatment.
Listed below are some treatments for Kidney failure.
- Peritoneal Dialysis
- Kidney Transplant
Know about Hemodialysis:
Generally, this is a type of treatment procedure in the case of Kidney Failure. It is also known as “Hemo Dialysis”. In this process, a machine is used to purify the blood. Thus this procedure is done at the Dialysis centre or even at your home.
Know about Peritoneal Dialysis
Peritoneal Dialysis is done when your kidneys are unable to function properly on their own. In this process, a purifying liquid moves through a pipe into part of your abdomen. From there it filters unwanted items from your blood. After a specific time, the liquid with unwanted waste items moves out of your abdomen and is disposed of.
Kidney Transplant in the case of Kidney failure
Generally, Kidney Transplant involves, replacing your failing kidney with a healthy Kidney. Such as, a healthy kidney must be available from any Alive Donor or from the deceased donor. After replacing the failed kidney with a healthy kidney, then a new kidney starts its function just as your old healthy kidney does.